Outside Resources Audio Interview: As early as 9 minutes after birth, infants show attentional preferences for faces over similar objects Johnson et al. Reddy therefore argues that the emotion of romantic love was created in Europe in the 12th century, and was not present in other cultures at the time.
Specifically, American participants perceived low intensity facial expressions as significantly less excited than either Japanese or Russian participants, while Japanese participants perceived high intensity facial expressions as significantly calmer compared to both Russian and American participants.
The work of Ekman, and Izard, concluded that facial expressions were in fact universal, innate, and phylogenetically derived. This may be because, compared with North Americans, East Asians engage in more dialectical thinking i. According to research by Masuda et al.
Since that time, the Cultural influences emotional expression and perception of the six basic emotions  i. Another study has shown that American culture values high arousal positive states such as excitement, over low arousal positive states such as calmness.
At the level of physiological arousal e. Universalists point to our prehistoric ancestors as the source of emotions that all humans share.
True, with European Americans, emotional suppression is associated with higher levels of depression and lower levels of life satisfaction. That is, people from North American contexts who value high arousal affective states tend to prefer thrilling activities like skydiving, whereas people from East Asian contexts who value low arousal affective states prefer tranquil activities like lounging on the beach Tsai, Perception of emotion intensity varies across culture Cultural variation in emotion intensity perception has been well-documented in past research e.
Collectivistic cultures are said to promote the interdependence of individuals and the notion of social harmony. Furthermore, research also suggests that cultural contexts behave as cues when people are trying to interpret facial expressions.
Indeed, Niedenthal suggests that: For example, happiness is generally considered a desirable emotion across cultures. Finding words to describe emotions that have comparable definitions in other languages can be very challenging.
American values promote individual autonomy and personal achievement, where Asian values promote relational harmony.
Cultural scripts dictate how positive and negative emotions should be experienced and combined. In The Making of Romantic Love, Reddy uses cultural counterpoints to give credence to his argument that romantic love is a 12th-century European construct, built in a response to the parochial view that sexual desire was immoral.
Many researchers since have criticized this belief and instead argue that emotions are much more complex than initially thought. Currently, the research literature is dominated by comparisons between Western usually American and Eastern Asian usually Japanese or Chinese sample groups.
Specifically, we integrate two recent developments in cross-cultural psychology that provide particular insights into the modulatory role of culture on interpretations of emotional expressions and underlying cognitive mechanisms, namely a investigations of cross-cultural differences in emotion intensity perception that underline the impact of display rules on emotion prototypes, and b investigations of cross-cultural differences in feature extraction during decoding of facial expressions of emotions that underline the influence of culture on cognitive styles.
One of the most consistent cultural differences revealed in past research investigating emotion intensity perception is the tendency of Americans to rate the same expressions more intensely compared to Japanese participants across a range of emotions including happiness, sadness, and surprise Ekman et al.
These cultural expectations of emotions are sometimes referred to as display rules. Context is also crucial for interpretations of emotional expressions for review see Barrett et al.
Cultural confusions show that facial expressions are not universal. Infants also perceive different facial expressions at a very early age, as indicated by their ability to imitate facial gestures by the time they are 12 days old Meltzoff and Moore, In a follow-up experiment, Matsumoto et al.
Furthermore, each model was shown twice, once portraying high intensity positive emotions and once, low intensity positive emotions, in order to investigate cultural differences in the perception of emotion displays of varying intensity via perceptual difference scores.
Journal of Experimental Psychology: Culture and the self: Recent evidence partially supports this notion, particularly for happy and sad expressions Jack et al.
Psychological Review, 98 2 Specifically, recent findings indicating significant levels of differentiation between intensity levels of facial expressions among American participants, as well as deviations from clear categorization of high and low intensity expressions among Japanese and Russian participants, suggest that display rules shape mental representations of emotions, such as intensity levels of emotion prototypes.
Matsumoto addressed this shortcoming by employing two separate scales, one assessing external display and one assessing intensity of emotion.
Currently, the research literature is dominated by comparisons between Western usually American and Eastern Asian usually Japanese or Chinese sample groups.
Imitation of facial and manual gestures by human neonates. For example, ethnographic accounts suggest that American mothers think that it is important to focus on their children's successes while Chinese mothers think it is more important to provide discipline for their children.
The work of Ekman, and Izard, concluded that facial expressions were in fact universal, innate, and phylogenetically derived.
In this case, American participants rated external displays significantly higher than internal experiences when viewing high intensity expressions.She has received numerous awards and grants for her work on culture and emotion and on the implications of cultural differences in emotion for mental health, decision-making, and person perception.
Creative Commons License. Influence of Culture on Emotion. Culture can have a profound impact on the way in which people display, perceive, and experience emotions. Learning Objectives. Give examples of universal vs. culturally dependent aspects of emotional expression. Key Takeaways Key Points. The culture in which we live provides structure, guidelines, expectations.
cultural variability. soch as those offered by HofSledc (), may be useful in CULTURAL INFLUENCES ON THE PERCEPTION OF EMOTION DAVID MATSUMOTO Wright Inslitll1e, BerJcelJ!y identifying the emotional expression, (b) the mean intensity level attributed to each of the expressions, and .c) the amount of.
Cultural Influences On Emotional Expression and Perception Essay but not necessarily every aspect of what we tend to express. As defined in the textbook, "emotional expression is the most important representation of our emotions, and may be similar to others" (Adler, Proctor, and Towne ).
For example, a study measuring the expression of positive and negative emotions separately will be easier to understand on how cultural norms affect the emotional expression and perception.
The finding of cultural influence is a great step forward in understanding the role of emotional expression. Influence of Culture on Emotion. Culture can have a profound impact on the way in which people display, perceive, and experience emotions.
Give examples of universal vs. culturally dependent aspects of emotional expression. Key Takeaways Key Points. The culture in which we live provides structure, guidelines, expectations.Download